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processes as well. Many wineries use growing and production methods that preserve or accentuate the aroma and taste influences of their unique terroir. However, flavour differences are less desirable for producers of mass-market table wine or other cheaper wines, where consistency takes precedence. Such producers try to minimise differences in sources of grapes through production techniques such as micro-oxygenation, tannin filtration, cross-flow filtration, thin-film evaporation, and spinning cones.
A “vintage wine” is made from grapes that were all or mostly grown in a particular year, and labelled as such. Some countries allow a vintage wine to include a small portion that is not from the labelled vintage. Variations in a wine’s character from year to year can include subtle differences in colour, palate, nose, body and development. High-quality wines can improve in flavour with age if properly stored.
Vintage wines are generally bottled in a single batch so that each bottle will have a similar taste. Climate’s impact on the character of a wine can be significant enough to cause different vintages from the same vineyard to vary dramatically in flavour and quality. Thus, vintage wines are produced to be individually characteristic of the particular vintage and to serve as the flagship wines of the producer.
Wine tasting is the sensory examination and evaluation of wine. Wines contain many chemical compounds similar or identical to those in fruits, vegetables, and spices. The sweetness of wine is determined by the amount of residual sugar in the wine after fermentation, relative to the acidity present in the wine. Dry wine, for example, has only a small amount of residual sugar.
Some wine labels suggest opening the bottle and letting the wine “breathe” for a couple of hours before serving, while others recommend drinking it immediately. In addition to aeration, decanting with a filter allows the removal of bitter sediments that may have formed in the wine. Sediment is more common in older bottles, but aeration may benefit younger wines. When tasting wine, individual flavours may also be detected due to the complex mix of organic molecules that grape juice and wine
can contain. Experienced tasters can distinguish between flavours characteristic of a specific grape and flavours that result from other factors in winemaking. Typical intentional flavour elements in wine – chocolate, vanilla, or coffee, are those imparted by aging in oak casks rather than the grape itself.
There are three steps to wine tasting:
Step one: Take a quick whiff of the wine that was just poured into the glass (no more than 1 oz). Do so by holding it still. At times, this so-called “first nose” happens to pinpoint more subtle aromas, those rather lavish, given its higher volatility rate.
Step two: Swirl the wineglass swiftly, always holding it by the stem, so that the wine could swirl inwardly. Once more, take a deeper whiff; the so-called “second nose”, means scents imparted the by-product of aeration and oxidation. Immediately leave the wine to rest in your wineglass for a few minutes.
Step three: Sip the wine and swish it around the mouth. This is where the wine awakens your senses. Slosh the wine around and draw in some air. Now all it takes is an ascertainment of the wine’s characteristics. By labelling an aroma, you will probably remember it better to depict the wine more effectively later on.
After opening white wine, it should be refrigerated. This will only keep the wine for three to five days make sure the cork is in the bottle as tightly as possible. The important thing is to minimise the wine’s exposure to air. If you have a smaller bottle, you may wish to transfer the leftover wine to it because there will be less air for it to contend with. Red wine, on the other hand, should be left out. Place the cork in the bottle, put the bottle in a dark place, and do not worry about it. This will help for a couple of days.